The word «Ukraine» is of Slavic origin and initially it meant «land» or «territory». The most likely root is Indo-European krei – which means to separate or to cut. There are lot’s of different ideas about it’s derivation. Nevertheless, the most probable one is it’s direct synonymic connection with the word «princely state» – it is a land which was given to the prince. The analogue to this one is a word of German origin «inland», which means home land. It was mentioned in «Kyivchronicles» since 1187. Other group of researchers identify this word as « the most distant one», «border». The refore – «Ukraine» literally means – «aland given to us from future, separated from the rest», which in fact to be brief means – «our own land».
Since middle of the 16th century this word is being mentioned in many sources overseas. Since 16th century has been used only in the meaning of «country or state settled by Ukrainians». Name «Ukraine» is being marked in European geographies sinceс 1650, 1666, 1720 and other years. This usage of the name completely fitt edit’s disposal between people, which is proven by numerous songs devoted to the events between XVI—XVIII c. Since now on this name is being widely used despite all the tendencies in terminology and other bans.
Within millennium Ukrainian nation has being forming on the ritory of contemporary Ukraine. Historian strackit ‘s root in Tripolie culture some where 3 thousand years ago B.C. in the heritage of scythes. More1100 years ago a powerful middle-aged monarchy named Kyivan Rus was founded on the territory of contemporary Ukraine. Between ХІІ-ХIII с. this state split. Some partofit’s territory went to Russia, the rest – to Poland and Lithuania. After long lasting fight for independence Ukraine has appeared on the world map as a country as Zaporizhska Sichas a result of national and liberating war between 1648-54. But after that Ukraine has over gone colonial existence of under Russia, Poland and Austria (since 1772).
Revolutionary processes in February and October 1917 have destructed Russian Empire and they proclaimed independence of Ukraine by IV universal of 22d, January 1918 and foundation of Ukrainian People’s Republic (UNR). The first world war has accelerated split of Austrian and Hungarian empire, in 1 part of which they proclaimed formation of West Ukrainian People’s Republic (ZUNR) since 1, Nobember 1918. But it existed only with in 8 months.
Soviet Social Republic (1921) has been approved by many countries. This republic participated in more than 90 agreements and cooperation between 15 countries but still majority of Ukrainians showed their tendency to independent state development. Under pressure of communistic centralized administration Ukraine was obliged to give all the rights of foreign policy to government of unification. Nevertheless in the center they were afraid of Ukrainian separatism.
Thirties were the most tragical in the history of Ukraine. Govern or soft hose days including Stalin have planned agricultural crisis which meant to kill social layer of Ukrainian nationalism by famine ( none of the country in the world has reacted this horrible plan). Famine and genocides of 1932-33 has extirpated around 8 millions of Ukrainians who lived in villages. Disruption of biological potential of Ukrainians was accompanied by ban of independent Ukrainian church, physical liquidation of national intelligence.
Being apart of USSR Ukraine formally had some rights and characteristics of sovereign state: it’s territory, authorities, budget, hymn and flag, Constitution. In 1945 Ukraine has become a member and a founder of United Nations. Despite all the dependence on decisions of the union Ukraine has been always proved it’s international legislation subjectiveness. Within the period of 1944-90 Ukraine has become a member of 156 international agreements, member of 16 interstate organizations, it participated in 60 constant or temporary international institutions.
16, July, 1990 House of Parliament (Verhovna Rada) has adopted historical document – ACT of state sovereign power. 24, August 1991, Verhovna Rada proclaimed ACT of Independence of Ukraine. It’s territory was announced as complete and untouchable. Only Constitution of Ukraine and its laws are legal here. December 1, 1991 they have made all – Ukrainian referendum which proved intentions of Ukrainians for independency. More than 90 percent of Ukrainians did that. This day they have had presidential elections. End of 20th century Ukraine has met as an Independent Country.
Within it’s impendency Ukraine had 3 revolutions, 5 elections. Still Ukrainians are proud to be independent and are very proud to welcome foreigners in their lovely country full of ancient history, fascinating sights and intelligent kind people.